Category Archives for "Rules and Regulations"

CAA UAV Rules, Regulations, and Advice

CAA UAV RulesAs the number of UAV flying in UK airspace increases day by day there are many who are seeking clarification regarding the CAA UAV rules and regulations.  Do I need to contact ATC?  Do I need permission?  What can I do here, but not there?

The CAA are receiving a lot of enquiries and obtaining a response can be a lengthy process with no guarantee that you’ll receive a response or that it will answer all your questions fully.  The onus is on you, the pilot, to inform yourself using the documentation that is freely available online, so that they are at least not answering questions that can be answered by referring to the relevant section of the CAA’s website.

Here is an auto reply from one email that explains this in detail:

Dear Sir/Madam,

We are receiving a very high number of enquiries about Small Unmanned Aircraft (UA) – ‘Drones’ – and the various rules and requirements governing their operation within the UK.  Although we will read your e-mail enquiry, it will not always be possible to provide an individual response.  Please use the links below to find detailed information for common enquirie

General enquiries about Small Unmanned Aircraft (SUA) and the CAA’s regulatory safety framework for commercial and recreational use: www.caa.co.uk/uas and www.caa.co.uk/cap722

Detailed guidance on operating SUA within London and other towns and citieswww.caa.co.uk/in2014081 and www.caa.co.uk/in2014115

UK Law: Air Navigation Order (ANO) Articles 166 and 167 pertaining to small unmanned aircraft: www.caa.co.uk/cap393

Demonstrating pilot competency at a National Qualified Entity (NQE) for the grant of CAA permission to work commercially (‘aerial work’): www.eurousc.com and www.resource-uas.co.uk and www.caa.co.uk/in2014044

Collecting images with an SUA:  Data Protection Act: www.caa.co.uk/in2013027

It is highly recommended that all UAV pilots and operators become familiar with all the above and refer back to this information regularly in order to see if anything has been changed or updated.  Consider registering for the CAA’s newsletter service to receive bulletins relating to your area of interest.

All the CAA want to do is make UAV activity safe for everyone in the air and on the ground, so think of these documents as guidance and good advice.  Much of it is common sense.

DJI Phantom Flight Training

DJI Phantom 1

The original Phantom 1. Still popular and available.

A question often posted in user groups and forums by those who are considering their first Phantom is, “Is there any DJI Phantom Flight Training?” or similar. The answer is, “Yes, there is“, and there are several ways to go about earning your wings, maintaining your skills, and becoming professionally qualified.

Ab Initio Flight Training

If you’ve had any previous experience with radio controlled aircraft of any type then you might tempted to skip the preliminaries and dive straight in to more advanced maneuvers, but is this wise? A Phantom quadcopter is more complex than conventional RC aircraft and although it’s easier to fly in many ways it has a lot of features that are common to multirotor UAV and less common or non-existent in radio controlled aircraft, so perhaps it would be better to approach it as if it’s something completely new.

If you have had no previous model aeroplane flying of any kind then you can still buy yourself a Phantom and learn step by step how to master the skills required for successful and enjoyable flights. On the other hand, some people prefer to start with something a little smaller just to get a feel for applying power and practicing flight control and one popular choice is the Hubsan X4 which can be flown indoors or outdoors. It therefore makes a good substitute for practice when the weather prevents outdoor flying.

However, at £60 for the Hubsan plus another £80 for the transmitter you might prefer to put that £140 towards your first DJI Phantom.

Pilot Training Guide

Aviate, Navigate, Communicate

RTFM. Read The Fantom Manual.

If you visit the DJI website and check the download section for any of the Phantom models you’ll see a link to the Pilot Training Guide. This pdf document is both an introduction to flying exercises as well as a reminder of what to practice from time to time. You can download a copy for free if you’re curious, before deciding to buy your first quadcopter.

This guide begins by reminding us that the DJI Phantom is not a toy and that it’s not suitable for anyone under the age of 18 years old. This may seem a little over cautious but it is a valid point when you consider the height, range, and potential speed of a device that weighs over a kilo. It may be unmanned but it’s still an aircraft and it has the potential to fly into airspace where it could conflict with other aircraft.

In the next sentence the guide reminds us to read three documents; the Quick Start Guide, the User Manual, and the Disclaimer. It also suggests that the reader watches the video tutorials. Hard copies of some of these are included in each new Phantom box but it’s recommended that you visit the download page to retrieve the latest copy containing important updates. There is a lot of information in these three documents and in the videos combined so the learning curve may appear steep to begin with but time spent on these steps will pay dividends later in time saved, and may save you from costly (and embarrassing) mistakes.

There then follows some reminders of essential pre flights checks and guidelines before the document describes various flying exercises. I suspect that many Phantom owners will use this document one, try the exercises a few times, and never refer to it again, but the maneuvers it describes are the kind of flying exercises which, when mastered, will hone your flying skills. If you find yourself flying near obstacles, going under or through an object, or flying indoors then keeping these skills current will help a great deal. If you’ve had a break from flying for a couple of weeks working through these exercises is a good way to freshen up and get the rust of those skills.

UAV Pilot Training

UAV TrainingThere are two options for anyone considering using a UAV (DJI Phantom or any other type) for commercial purposes in the UK. There is the BNUC-s run by EuroUSC and the RPQ-s run by the Resource Group. Both licences are recognised by the CAA and are the means by which an individual can obtain the PFAW (Permission For Aerial Work). Both involve studying some ground school subjects and undertaking flight tests in order to meet the required standard. The ground school subjects include basic studies that will be familiar to conventional aircraft pilots, but which are tailored for UAV flying e.g. Principles of Flight, Meteorology, Navigation etc.

There is a lot of interest in UAV and it’s growing, so demand for these courses is high. If you intend to follow this route you will need to book and schedule for them months in advance and be prepared to wait a further one or two months for the CAA to process your application even after you’ve passed the theory and practical exams.

UAV Insurance

There are two aspects of UAV insurance to consider:

  • Insurance against loss or theft. If you lose your Phantom for any reason then it might be possible to claim against your house insurance, but it’s best to check that this is the case before you start flying. Some policies include cover for personal items outside the home. It would come as a nasty surprise to find that you’re not covered as your Phantom sinks into a lake because you flew it too high or too far beyond your or the Phantom’s abilities.
  • Public Liability Insurance. If you make a mistake or something goes technically wrong and your Phantom causes damage to property or injury to a person then you will need cover for any claims made against you. This type of insurance can be obtained through the BMFA or or FPV.org.

If you fly commercially then you’ll need both types of insurance but they’ll be tailored to suit your choice of UAV and operating areas and environments – with premiums to match!

Stay Safe, Stay Legal

Part of learning how to fly a DJI Phantom or any other type of UAV is knowing what your legal limits are, as well as the technical limits and those of your own skills. On the rare occasion that flyers get into difficulty it’s because they cross one of these boundaries.

CAA Publicaton CAP 722, section 6.7:

The aircraft (UAV) shall not be flown

• in controlled airspace, except with the permission of the appropriate ATC unit;
• in any aerodrome traffic zone except with the permission of either the appropriate ATC unit or the person in charge of the aerodrome;
• at a height exceeding 400 feet above the surface;
• at a distance beyond the visual range of the Remote Pilot/RPA observer of the said aircraft, or a maximum range of 500 metres, whichever is less;
• over or within 150 metres of any congested area of a city, town or settlement; or
within 50 metres of any person, vessel, vehicle or structure not under the control of the Remote Pilot; during take-off or landing, however, the aircraft must not be flown within 30 metres unless that person is under the control of the Remote Pilot.

You also need to pay attention to NOTAMs that may advise you of temporary restrictions to any aerial activity in an area in which you may be planning to conduct flights.

DJI Phantom 2 No Fly Zone Feature

As any PPL (Private Pilots Licence) holder knows one of the most important things he or she must do when conducting flights is to avoid restricted or controlled airspace into which the pilot is not allowed due to the privilege limitations of the licence held.  In layman’s terms this means a private pilot has to stay outside of designated areas centred upon major and some minor airports.  The pilot will have learnt this as part of the PPL syllabus, but nevertheless controlled airspace infringements continue to occur for a variety of reasons; navigation error in flight, poor flight planning, use of out of date charts etc.  Drone or sUAV pilots need to observe and adhere to the same regulations and the DJI Phantom 2 No Fly Zone feature that will be good news to both quadcopter flyers and aviation authorities all over the world.

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